Environmental problems

Project №B2.6d.11 / 1.07.2019 "Improving environmental governance by youth-led SMEs" (EnvironmentYou) is funded by the European Regional Development Fund and nationally co-financed by the countries participating in the INTERREG VA Cross-Border Cooperation Program Greece-Bulgaria

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As the most serious problem due to climate change, farmers point to the frequent droughts. Assessing the use of water for irrigation can help improve crop conditions, reduce water losses and the risk of water erosion. Optimization of watering methods and irrigation norms will lead to a reduction in the costs of agricultural producers. Constant monitoring of the condition of crops and establishing the most appropriate moment in the development of agricultural crops for irrigation is a good way to rationally use water and improve the economic results of production. Alternative water sources:

  • Water is a very limited resource in many areas, so plan to use it wisely.
  • Identify current and future water needs.
  • Review potential water sources.
  • Calculate the possibilities and check the legal requirements (eg whether separate permits are needed, eg for drilling).
  • Use rain and snow water, wells, boreholes, and other water intake methods.
  • Minimize the use of clean drinking water for agricultural purposes - for watering crops, watering animals, washing, cleaning and more.

Stocks of nutrients in soils. Determination of fertilizer norms is carried out according to the needs of agricultural crops for nutrients, the available reserves of nutrients in the soil and the soil reaction (pH). This requires regular soil analyzes. Adherence to these rules saves money. The controlled introduction of only the necessary nutrients in digestible form into the soil reduces the risk of overdose and contamination of soil, surface and groundwater.

  • Organic fertilizers (solid and liquid manure, compost and all plant and organic waste) are a valuable source of organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and trace elements. The amount of mineral fertilizers used can be reduced by taking into account the content of digestible nutrients in the manure.
  • All types of solid manure, as well as all other organic residues on the farm (straw, post-harvest residues, fallen leaves, etc.), accumulated in a pile, decompose under the action of microorganisms, the process is called composting. The controlled decomposition of organic waste leads to the production of humus-like mass, which is a very good soil improver. Decomposition is faster if the pile is stirred periodically to speed up the process. If necessary, moisten with water.


  • Planting vegetation as a soil cover is the best method to prevent soil erosion. Farmers can plant trees and grasses to cover and connect the soil. Plants prevent wind and water erosion by covering the soil and connecting the soil to their roots. The best choice of plants to prevent soil erosion are herbs, wildflowers and trees.